Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of almost 10 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru, and the third largest city in the Americas (as defined by “city proper”). Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes. It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Today, around one-third of the Peruvian population lives in the metropolitan area.
Lima is also home to extreme poverty, especially in the densely populated settlements on its outskirts. These areas, known as “pueblos jovenes,” have grown rapidly in recent years, as people migrated from the rural sierra of Peru to Lima in search of economic opportunity and an escape from the instability and violence of the 1980s. People also continue to migrate to Lima from rural areas of Peru in search of better access to basic services — such as health care, education, and work opportunities — that are often limited or completely absent in their home communities. While some of the older settlements have in time become incorporated into the rest of Lima, the rapid and continued population growth in these areas has left many communities plagued by low wages, high unemployment, and a lack of attention from the state.
Climate: Lima’s climate is in transition between mild and warm, despite being located in the tropics and in a desert, Lima’s proximity to the cool waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to temperatures much cooler than those expected for a tropical desert. It is neither cold nor very hot. Temperatures rarely fall below 14 °C (57 °F) or rise above 29 °C (84 °F) throughout the entire year. Relative humidity is always very high, particularly in the mornings.While relative humidity is high, rainfall is very low due to strong atmospheric stability. The severely low rainfall impacts on water supply in the city, which originates from wells and from rivers that flow from the Andes